Synkretyczne pouczenie jogiczne w Ćarakasanhicie (Śarirasthana 1.137–155)
Keywords:Ayurveda; Yoga; Sāṃkhya; meditation; Upaniṣads; Mahābhārata
A syncretic yogic instruction in Carakasanhita (Śārīrasthāna 1.137-155): Śārīrasthāna (ŚS) 1.137-155, contained in Book 4 of the Ćarakasaṃhitā (1st century BCE — 2nd century CE), is a short treatise on yoga presented for āyurvedic purposes. In its yogic interpretation, the work comprises the Upaniṣads, the Mahābhārata, some Sāṃkhya’s and Vaiśeṣika’s notions as well as the meditative interpretation present in the Buddhist tradition. The ŚS gives a threefold path (ayana) leading to mokṣa (ŚS 150-151), the state of supreme brahman with which the conscious being, bhūtātman, becomes one (ŚS 155): yoga, smṛti, and sāṃkhya. The path to liberation is based on yoga, which is the reinforcement of the manas in the ātman (ŚS 138) and the stopping of suffering by breaking the connection between the erroneous identification of ātman with manas and the senses (ŚS 138-139). On the path of yoga, a powerful eight-fold magical power (eight siddhis) is created through which the yogi is able to overcome external adversities (ŚS 140-141). In the next step, the recognition of the one’s true identity — according to the sāṃkhya — is made through buddhi by the power of jñāna (ŚS 152-153). However, in order for this recognition to be realized, the state of purity of sattva (ŚS 141) must first appear, induced by the practice of the eight-step smṛti realized by eighteen perfections (ŚS 143-147).