Problemy z moralnością zwierząt
Keywords:levels of morality, moral development, non‐human morality, descriptive morality, neutral morality, normative morality
Problems with animal morality: The paper aims at discussing the category of animal morality in the light of contemporary scientific findings and theories. First, the issue of moral development is reconsidered in the context of evolutionary anthropology and primatology, then the main positions in this debate are presented. The author proposes a typology which is based on a distinction between various senses of morality, namely a descriptive, neutral, and normative sense (i.e. evaluative). These three aspects of morality are explained in detail and used when analyzing the problems specific to animal morality. The idea of morality applied by the leading participants of ongoing debates is also discussed. The article concludes with an observation that the main problem of these debates is not the very definition of morality and, at the same time, answering the question as to whether animals (individual species) are moral beings or not, but rather what is essentially problematic are the consequences to be implied from a specific understanding of morality.